‘Laser’ is an acronym: Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Laser light can be accurately focused into small spots with very high energy. The light is produced within an optical cavity containing a medium, which may be a gas (e.g., argon, krypton, carbon dioxide laser), liquid (e.g., pulsed dye laser) or solid (e.g., ruby, neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG), alexandrite laser). The process involves excitation of the molecules of the laser medium, which results in the release of a photon of light, as it returns to a stable state. Each medium produces a specific wavelength of light, which may be within the visible spectrum (violet 400 through to red 700nm) or infrared spectrum (more than 700 nm). Laser skin treatments are a safe, effective & the best non-surgical treatment method for treating diverse skin conditions and diseases, extending from aging (making skin younger), hair removal, pigmentation removal (melasma treatment), open pore treatment, wrinkle removal, fine line removal, tattoo removal, removal of vascular skin lesions (like capillary hemangiomas & strawberry nevus), skin whitening, skin lightening & also serves as synergistic treatment with a wide variety of anti-ageing treatments like Botox, Fillers, Skin chemical peels and cosmetic surgery.
In a shocking ruling, the Supreme Court of India reversed a Delhi High Court judgment and reinstated a British-era draconian law that not only criminalizes consensual gay sex, but also equates homosexuals with zoophiles and pedophiles, in India. Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code is a 153-year old colonial-era law. According to this law, same-sex relationships are an “unnatural offense” and punishable by a ten-year prison sentence. Whether being homosexual, lesbian or bisexual is of the order of nature or against is not the discussion here, since different people may have different views on this. But, in something as personal as sex, will the State decide what is right or wrong for each of its Citizens? As long as the act is in between two consenting adults, is it even democratic to get into the bedroom and dictate what is right or appropriate, via laws? Moreover, From a biological standpoint, the longstanding consensus of the behavioral and social sciences, and the health and mental health professions, since the 1970s, is that homosexuality and bisexuality are per se normal and positive variation of human sexual orientation.
Facial trauma, also called maxillofacial trauma, is any physical trauma to the face. Commonly injured facial bones include the nasal bone (the nose), the maxilla (the bone that forms the upper jaw), and the mandible (the lower jaw). The mandible may be fractured at its symphysis, body, angle, ramus, and condoyle. The zygoma (cheekbone) and the frontal bone (forehead) are other sites for fractures. Fractures may also occur in the bones of the palate (mouth) and those that come together to form the orbit of the eye. As many as 50–70% of people who survive traffic accidents have facial trauma. In most developed countries, violence from other people has replaced vehicle collisions as the main cause of maxillofacial trauma; however in many developing countries traffic accidents remain the major cause. Rene Le Fort used cadaver studies in 1900 to provide detailed descriptions of 3 basic types of facial fracture, these are now known as Le Fort I, Le Fort II & Le Fort III Fractures. Fractures of the nose, base of the skull, or maxilla may be associated with profuse nosebleeds. Nasal fractures may be associated with deformity of the nose, as well as swelling and bruising. Deformity in the face, for example a sunken cheekbone or teeth which do not align properly, suggests the presence of fractures. Asymmetry can suggest facial fractures or damage to nerves. People with mandibular fractures often have pain and difficulty opening their mouths and may have numbness in the lip and chin. With Le Fort fractures, the midface may move relative to the rest of the face or skull. The 3 goals of therapy in treating facial fractures are (1) to restore functional occlusion; (2) to stabilize the major facial skeletal supports, thereby restoring the pre-morbid 3-dimensional contour (height, width, and projection) to the face (Open Reduction & Internal Fixation); and (3) to provide skeletal support for the proper function and appearance of the overlying facial soft tissue structures.
Oculoplasty & oculoplastics deal with eye plastic, eyelid, orbital, lacrimal, brow and mid-face surgery. Oculoplastic surgery (performed by oculoplastic surgeons) is a fast growing super-specialty in India, with many institutes now offering fellowship training programs for young oculoplastic surgeons. For eyelid, orbital, brow, lacrimal and mid-face surgery, please seek and look for a good oculoplastic surgeon, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Hyderabad and most other Indian cities will have a few. Most of the top oculoplastic surgeons are trained in the Western world and have come back to India post that and costs will be 1/5th the costs you would pay in the US, Europe or Singapore.